Games
[Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.06"] [Round "1"] [White "Fine, Reuben"] [Black "Botvinnik, Mikhail"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "C17"] [Annotator "John Sherwood"] [PlyCount "61"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [Source "Caissas Edition"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. e4 {Prepared specially for this tournament. Fine was a 1.d4 player, but expanded his opening repertoire for AVRO, having just completed his revision of Modern Chess Openings.} e6 {Botvinnik always played either the French or the Sicilian, and Fine tells us he was prepared for both.} 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 Bb4 {The Winawer, Botvinnik's usual choice, as it is the sharpest line. " [Botvinnik] always seeks out the most complicated positions. If a move leads to a good fight, he is for it." [Fine]} 4. e5 c5 5. dxc5 $5 (5. Bd2 { Bogolubov's move was generally preferred at the time. Fine prepared the text move to introduce an element of surprise - and perhaps to side-step his opponent's renowned preparation in the Winawer.}) 5... Ne7 ({The complications following} 5... d4 6. a3 {are in White's favour.}) ({Bogolubov - Alekhine (Bad Neuheim 1936) a game cited in in Fine's edition of MCO went} 5... Nc6 6. Nf3 f6 7. Bb5 Bxc5 8. O-O Bd7 9. Re1 fxe5 $2 10. Nxe5 Nxe5 11. Rxe5 Bxb5 12. Nxb5 { with a quick crush of the ex-champion.}) 6. Nf3 Nbc6 {Preparing his next move.} 7. Bd3 ({Fine gives} 7. Bd2 Ng6 8. Bb5 O-O $11) 7... d4 8. a3 Ba5 $1 ({White has a lasting initiative after} 8... dxc3 9. axb4 cxb2 10. Bxb2 Nxb4 11. Bc4 $1 Qxd1+ 12. Kxd1 $1 O-O 13. Ke2 $17 -- {intending} 14. Nd4) 9. b4 Nxb4 ({Not} 9... dxc3 $6 10. bxa5 Qxa5 11. O-O Qxc5 12. a4 Nxe5 13. Ba3 Nxf3+ 14. Qxf3 Qc7 15. Rfd1 $1 O-O (15... Bd7 16. Be4 Bc6 17. Qxc3 $14) 16. Bd6 Qd8 17. Qg3 $14 { followed by} -- 18. Bc4 {with a very enjoyable game for White.}) 10. axb4 Bxb4 {Diagram [#]} 11. Bb5+ $1 ({White is no better than eq ual after} 11. O-O Bxc3 12. Rb1 {e.g.} Qd5 13. Ng5 (13. Bb5+ Bd7 14. Bxd7+ Qxd7 15. Bb2 Bxb2 16. Rxb2 Nc6 $15) 13... Qxe5 14. Qf3 f6 15. Bb5+ Kf8 {when he is well advised to take the draw with} 16. c6 Qd5 17. cxb7 Bxb7 18. Nxe6+ Kf7 19. Ng5+ Kf8 20. Ne6+ { etc.}) 11... Nc6 $6 ({Botvinnik points out the much better} 11... Bd7 12. Qxd4 Bxc3+ 13. Qxc3 Bxb5 {with White's king trapped in the centre. Then} 14. Qb3 Bc6 15. O-O O-O ({or perhaps} 15... a5 {and ....a5-a4 to go with ...0-0, .... Qc7 and ...Rfd8 with good play.}) 16. Bg5 Qc7 17. Nd4 Ng6 18. Rfe1 h6 19. Bd2 Qd7 (19... Nxe5 $2 20. Bf4 Bd5 21. Bxe5 $18) 20. Bc3 Rfc8 {is somewhat better for Black. Both Fine and Botvinnik regarded the text as a losing move, but on closer examination one is inclined to agree with Kasparov that Botvinnik had a chance to develop excellent, even equalising, counterplay at move 14.}) 12. Bxc6+ bxc6 13. Ra4 $1 {Very fine, forcing the trade of Black's strong bishop and making it a simple matter to regain the pawn.} Bxc3+ 14. Bd2 {Diagram [#]} f6 $2 ({After this Botvinnik is no longer in the game. He can hold with} 14... a5 $1 15. O-O Ba6 16. Bxc3 (16. Re1 Bb5 17. Ra3 a4 $11) 16... dxc3 (16... Bxf1 $2 17. Rxd4 Qc7 18. Qxf1 $16) 17. Qxd8+ Rxd8 18. Re1 O-O 19. Rxa5 Bb5 20. Ra3 Rd5 21. Rxc3 Ra8 $11 {(Based on analysis by Botvinnik)}) 15. O-O O-O (15... fxe5 $2 16. Nxe5 O-O 17. Bxc3 dxc3 18. Qd6 $16) 16. Bxc3 dxc3 17. Qe1 a5 (17... fxe5 18. Qxc3 Rf4 19. Raa1 $1 e4 20. Qe3 Rf5 21. Nd2 $16) 18. Qxc3 Ba6 19. Rfa1 Bb5 {Diagram [#]} 20. Rd4 $1 ({Prudent restraint, for} 20. Rxa5 $2 Rxa5 21. Qxa5 (21. Rxa5 Qd1+ 22. Qe1 Qxe1+ 23. Nxe1 Re8 $11) 21... Qxa5 22. Rxa5 Re8 { dissipates White's advantage.}) 20... Qe7 21. Rd6 a4 22. Qe3 Ra7 23. Nd2 a3 ({ Kasparov points out} 23... Ra5 24. c4 Ba6 25. Ne4 $18 {e.g.} f5 26. Qd2 Qc7 27. Nf6+ gxf6 28. Rd7 Qxe5 29. Re1 $18) 24. c4 Ba4 25. exf6 Qxf6 26. Rxa3 Re8 27. h3 {Some air, just to be safe.} Raa8 28. Nf3 Qb2 29. Ne5 Qb1+ 30. Kh2 Qf5 31. Qg3 {Diagram [#]} 1-0 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.08"] [Round "2"] [White "Euwe, Max"] [Black "Flohr, Salo"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "E11"] [Annotator "John Sherwood"] [PlyCount "63"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [Source "Caissas Edition"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 Bb4+ 4. Bd2 Qe7 5. g3 Nc6 ({Instead of the} 5... O-O 6. Bg2 Bxd2+ 7. Nbxd2 d6 8. O-O c5 {of Vidmar - Alekhine (New York 1927)}) 6. Bg2 Bxd2+ {Diagram [#]} 7. Nbxd2 (7. Qxd2 {permits} Ne4 8. Qc2 Qb4+ 9. Nc3 (9. Nbd2 $2 Nxd2 10. Nxd2 Nxd4 {hence Black's fifth move.}) 9... Nxc3 10. Qxc3 Qxc3+ 11. bxc3 b6 $11) 7... d6 8. O-O O-O 9. e4 e5 10. d5 Nb8 {Before Black can play ...a7-a5.} 11. b4 Bg4 ({Also possible is} 11... a5 12. a3 Bg4 13. Qb3 Na6 14. h3 c5 {with a solid enough position.}) 12. Qc2 ({If} 12. h3 {then} Bc8 $1 13. a3 b6 14. Ne1 Nbd7 {and a subsequent ...Bb7}) 12... c6 {Diagram [#] To open the c-file and work against White's queen.} 13. Nh4 ({Euwe says this was directed against} 13. Nh4 Nbd7 {which would have been met by} 14. h3 Bh5 15. Nf5) ({But more promising for White, given his space advantage and the potentially strong fianchettoed bishop, is} 13. c5 {e.g.} cxd5 14. exd5 Na6 ( 14... Nxd5 $2 15. cxd6 Qxd6 16. Ng5 g6 17. Nc4 Qd8 18. Qd2 Nxb4 19. Qxb4 Qxg5 20. Bxb7 $16) 15. cxd6 Qxd6 16. a3 Qxd5 (16... -- 17. Nc4 Qxd5 18. Nfxe5 Qb5 19. Nxg4 Nxg4 20. Nd6 $16) 17. Ng5 Qd7 18. Nde4 Bf5 19. Nxf6+ gxf6 20. Ne4 Kg7 21. Rfd1 {with a persistent edge.}) 13... cxd5 14. exd5 a5 15. a3 Na6 {Diagram [#]} 16. Qb3 ({Another try is} 16. Rab1 axb4 17. axb4 Qd7 18. Qd3 Nc7 19. f3 Bh5 20. f4 {although Black looks fine after} Rfe8 21. fxe5 Rxe5 22. Ndf3 Ree8 23. Nd4 Bg6 24. Nxg6 hxg6) 16... Qd7 ({More elastic is} 16... Rfc8 17. Rfe1 axb4 18. axb4 Qd8 {and ...Qb6 with a satisfactory position.}) 17. Rfe1 Bh3 18. Bh1 {The bishop is retained to support the central break and the upcoming queenside play.} axb4 19. axb4 {Diagram [#]} Nc7 ({Consideration should be given to} 19... b5 {exchanging the c-pawn and fixing the d5-pawn where it is confining White's bishop. Play might go} 20. Ng2 Rfb8 21. Ne3 bxc4 22. Ndxc4 Qd8 (22... Rxb4 $2 23. Qxb4 Nxb4 24. Rxa8+ Ne8 25. Nxd6 h6 26. Be4 g6 27. Nxe8 $18 {after the move played, Black threatens to take the pawn.}) 23. Qc3 g6) 20. Ng2 Bxg2 ({The alternative is} 20... b5 21. Ne3 {(Euwe)} bxc4 22. Ndxc4 Rxa1 23. Rxa1 Nb5 {intending ...Rb8 with an approximately level game.}) 21. Bxg2 h6 22. Nf1 Rfc8 {Diagram [#]} 23. Ne3 (23. c5 {is refuted by} Rxa1 24. Rxa1 dxc5 25. bxc5 Ncxd5 26. Rd1 Rxc5 {(Euwe)}) 23... Na6 ({Somewhat better is} 23... Rxa1 24. Rxa1 Na6 {when White will find it much more difficult to advance the e-pawn.}) 24. c5 {Euwe considers this "decisive", but his opponent should in fact be able to hold the position.} dxc5 25. Nc4 {Diagram [#]} Qd8 $2 ({Flohr can simply allow White's Nb6:} 25... cxb4 26. Nb6 Qd6 27. Nxa8 Rxa8 {intending ...Nd7-c5, with full compensation for the exchange.}) 26. Nxe5 {Now Euwe gets strong play against f7.} Nxb4 {This seems to be the best Black has.} 27. d6 Rxa1 28. Qxf7+ {Diagram [#]} Kh7 $2 ({The losing move. Even at this late stage Flohr can resist with} 28... Kh8 29. Rxa1 Qxd6 30. Qxb7 Qc7 {when even the loss of the e-pawn after} 31. Ng6+ Kh7 32. Nf8+ Kh8 33. Ne6 Qxb7 34. Bxb7 { should not prove fatal in view of the drawish pawn configuration that remains.} ) 29. Rxa1 Qxd6 (29... Qf8 {succumbs to} 30. d7 Rd8 31. Bxb7 {followed by Ra8 +-.}) 30. Be4+ Kh8 ({Or} 30... Nxe4 31. Qf5+ g6 32. Qf7+ Kh8 33. Nxg6+) 31. Ng6+ Kh7 32. Ne7+ ({Instead of} 32. Ne7+ Nxe4 33. Qf5+ g6 34. Qf7+ Kh8 35. Nxg6+ {as before.}) 1-0 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.10"] [Round "3"] [White "Alekhine, Alexander"] [Black "Euwe, Max"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "D13"] [Annotator "John Sherwood"] [PlyCount "77"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [Source "Caissas Edition"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. d4 d5 2. c4 c6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. cxd5 cxd5 {Not at all drawish in the hands of Alekhine, who takes advantage of ther stable centre to launch his beloved speculative kingside attack.} 5. Nc3 Nc6 6. Bf4 Bf5 {Euwe here regards ... e7-e6 and ...Bd6 as "more careful" avoiding the "obligations" resulting from the text move.} 7. e3 a6 ({Euwe, in the contest of 1938, thought this was an unavoidable loss of tempo, but in fact he can play} 7... e6 8. Qb3 ({if} 8. Bb5 {Blasck is perhaps best advisded to adopt Grunfeld's suggestion} Nd7 {to answer } 9. Qa4 Rc8 10. Bxc6 Rxc6 11. Qxa7 {with} Qc8 $11) ({but not} 8. Nb5 $2 Bb4+ 9. Nc3 Ne4 $17) 8... Bb4 9. Bb5 O-O 10. O-O Bxc3 11. Qxc3 Rc8 {when Black has ideas like ...Qb6 and Nh5/e4 to choose from.}) 8. Ne5 Rc8 ({On} 8... e6 {White has} 9. Qa4 Qb6 (9... Qc8 $6 10. Rc1 Be7 11. f3 O-O 12. g4 Bg6 13. h4 h6 14. Nxg6 fxg6 15. Bd3 $14) 10. Bb5 Rc8 11. Bxc6+ bxc6 12. O-O Be7 13. Rfe1 O-O 14. Qb3 $1 {Black will prove unable tp protect his queenside pawns.}) 9. g4 $1 { Diagram [#] Against Euwe's less developed position, the Dutchman having spent a valuable tempo om move 7.} Bd7 (9... Nxe5 10. dxe5 (10. gxf5 Nc4 {Diagram [#] doesn't quite work because of} 11. Qa4+ (11. Qa4+ Rc6 12. Bxc4 dxc4 13. d5 b5 { Diagram [#]} 14. dxc6 $1 bxa4 15. c7 Qa8 16. O-O-O {when} -- 17. Rd8+ {gives White a definite advantage in view of his opponent's weak queenside pawns.})) 10... Nd7 $1 11. Qxd5 Nc5 12. Qxd8+ Rxd8 {when White's extra pawn is doubled.}) (9... Bg6 10. Qb3 (10. h4 Qb6 $1 {with good counter-play.}) 10... Nxe5 11. dxe5 Nd7 $1 12. Qxd5 Nc5 13. Qxd8+ Rxd8) 10. Bg2 ({Interesting is} 10. Nxd7 Qxd7 11. g5 Ng8 12. Na4 Qd8 13. Rc1 e6 14. a3 Nge7 15. Nc5 Qb6 16. b4 Ng6 17. Bg3 $16) 10... e6 11. O-O h6 ({Euwe wants no part of Whites g4-g5 followed by a break at e4. But after the game the Dutchman suggested} 11... g6 {to answer} 12. g5 {with} Nh5) 12. Bg3 {Making way for the f-pawn.} h5 $2 ({weakening the kingside needlessly and endangering the h-pawn. Alexander, in his book on Alekhine's later games, prefers} 12... Be7 13. Nxd7 (13. f4 Nxe5 14. fxe5 Nh7 { with a defensible game.}) 13... Qxd7 14. f4 Na5 {with queenside counterplay.}) ({Euwe suggests} 12... Bb4) 13. Nxd7 (13. g5 $2 h4 $1 {works out quite well for Black e.g.} 14. Bf4 Nxe5 15. Bxe5 h3 16. Bh1 Ng8 17. Bf4 b5 $11) 13... Nxd7 $2 ({Euwe later preferred} 13... Qxd7 {which gives White a small edge after} 14. g5 Ng8 15. h4 (15. g6 $6 h4 16. Bf4 h3 17. gxf7+ Qxf7 18. Bf3 Nf6 $11) 15... Bd6 16. Na4 {The text inexplicably hands over the h-pawn, after which it is virtually impossible for Euwe to stay in the game.}) 14. gxh5 Nf6 ({On} 14... Qg5 {hoping for 15.Bf3 Nf6, White plays instead} 15. e4 $1 dxe4 16. Bxe4 Nf6 (16... Qxh5 $2 17. d5 Nce5 18. Qxh5 Rxh5 19. dxe6 fxe6 20. f4 Nf7 21. Rac1 $16) 17. d5 $1 {Diagram [#]} exd5 (17... Nxe4 $2 18. dxc6 $1 Rxc6 19. Nxe4 $18) 18. Bxd5 Be7 19. Bxc6+ Rxc6 20. Re1 Kf8 (20... Qc5 21. Re5 Qb6 22. Qe2 Re6 23. Re1 $14) 21. Qb3 b5 22. a4 Nxh5 23. Qd5 {with a thankless defence ahead for Black.}) 15. Bf3 Bb4 16. Rc1 Kf8 ({Rather than submit himself to the attack down the g-file after} 16... O-O 17. Kh1 {and Rg1 etc. And if}) (16... Bd6 { then} 17. e4 dxe4 18. Nxe4 Be7 19. Nxf6+ Bxf6 20. d5 $16) 17. a3 Bxc3 ({Or} 17... Bd6 $16 {then} 18. Na4 {followed by b2-b4 and Nc5. etc.}) 18. Rxc3 (18. bxc3 $6 Na5 $16 {and a later ....Qe7}) 18... Ne7 19. Qb3 {Diagram [#]} Rxc3 ( 19... Qd7 20. Rfc1 Nc6 {looks better at first glance, but White has} 21. Qb6 Nxh5 (21... Ke7 22. Rb3 Nd8 23. Rc7 $1 {and the b-pawn will fall.}) 22. Bxh5 Rxh5 23. Rb3 $18) 20. bxc3 Qd7 ({Also unappetising is} 20... b5 21. a4 Nxh5 22. axb5 Nxg3 23. hxg3 axb5 24. Qxb5 g6 25. c4 dxc4 26. Qe5 Rg8 27. Rb1 Nc8 28. Rb8 {Diagram [#]}) 21. Qb6 ({Sharper is} 21. Rb1 b5 22. a4 bxa4 23. Qb8+ Ne8 24. Rb7 Qc6 25. Rb6 Qd7 26. Rxa6 {after which the a-pawn is rounded up amd Black no longer has any reason to continue.}) 21... Nc8 22. Qc5+ Kg8 23. Rb1 { Intending 24.a4 and c3-c4.} b5 24. h6 {Diagram [#]} gxh6 ({On} 24... Rxh6 { White can play} 25. a4 Na7 (25... bxa4 $2 26. Rb8 $18) 26. axb5 Nxb5 27. c4 dxc4 28. Bc6 Qd8 29. Ra1 Nc3 30. Rxa6 Rh5 31. Qb4 $1 {preventing the simplifying ...Ra5} Nfd5 32. Qxc4 Qe7 33. Ra8+ Kh7 34. Qd3+ f5 (34... g6 35. e4 $18) 35. Qa6 {followed by Re8, and Black's position comes apart.}) 25. Be5 Kg7 26. a4 bxa4 (26... Ne7 {looks more solid, but Alekhine nevertheless would have} 27. axb5 Rc8 28. Qa3 axb5 29. Kh1 Ng6 30. Rg1 Qd8 31. Bh5 {threatening 12.Qa7.} Kh7 32. Bxg6+ fxg6 33. Qa6 $18) 27. c4 Ne7 28. cxd5 {Diagram [#]} Nexd5 ({Euwe is also lost after} 28... Rc8 29. Qb6 ({or} 29. dxe6 Qxe6 30. Qd6 Qxd6 31. Bxd6 Ned5 32. Be5 Kg6 33. Ra1 Nb6 34. Bb7 Rc3 35. Bxa6 Nfd7 36. Bd6 $18) 29... Nexd5 30. Qxa6 {e.g.} Qc6 31. Qxc6 Rxc6 32. Kh1 a3 (32... Rb6 33. Rg1+ Kf8 34. e4 { winning a piece}) 33. Rg1+ Kf8 34. Bxf6 a2 35. Bg7+ Ke7 {intending 36....Rb6 with very good drawing chances.} 36. Ra1 Rc2 37. Bxd5 exd5 38. Kg2 {and wins.}) 29. Kh1 $1 ({Looking at} 29. Kh1 -- 30. Rg1+ Kh7 31. Qc2+ {and mate next move.} ) 29... Rc8 {Taking c2 away from the queen.} 30. Rg1+ Kh7 31. Qa3 $1 ({To access the same b1-b7 diagonal from d3. Alekhine threatens} 31. Qa3 -- 32. Qd3+ Kh8 33. Bxd5) 31... Rg8 32. e4 {Alekhine wins the knight and easily parries the few remaining checks.} Rxg1+ 33. Kxg1 Qb5 34. exd5 Qb1+ 35. Kg2 Qg6+ 36. Bg3 Nxd5 37. Bxd5 exd5 38. Qxa4 h5 39. h4 {"A well-known critic has remarked that in a game between Alekhine and Euwe the critical phase of the struggle is usually found in the opening. The correctness of this assertaion was comfirmed this evening." [Euwe]} 1-0 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.10"] [Round "3"] [White "Botvinnik, Mikhail"] [Black "Reshevsky, Samuel Herman"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "A25"] [Annotator "John Sherwood"] [PlyCount "73"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [Source "Caissas Edition"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. c4 e5 2. Nc3 Nc6 {A closed Sicilian Defence with colours reversed, which Botvinnik thought gave White an advantage due to the extra tempo. The tournament book suggests 2.... Nf6, to counter 3.g3 with 3.... d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.Bg2 Nb6.} 3. g3 g6 4. Bg2 Bg7 5. e3 {To place the knight on e2 where it will not be harassed by Black's pawns after f7-f5.} d6 6. Nge2 Nge7 7. d4 exd4 { Black will use his pieces to attack White's centre.} 8. exd4 O-O 9. O-O Nf5 ({ Botvinnik points out the alternative} 9... Bg4 10. h3 Bxe2 11. Nxe2 Nf5 12. d5 Ne5 13. Qc2 Re8 {with a simpler path to equality.}) 10. d5 {Diagram [#]} Ne5 ({ Or} 10... Ncd4 {[Pachman] Then if} 11. Nxd4 Nxd4 12. Ne4 {Black has} c5 {e.g.} 13. dxc6 bxc6 14. Be3 Nf5 15. Bf4 d5 16. cxd5 cxd5 17. Nc3 Be6 18. Nxd5 Rc8 ( 18... Bxb2 $2 19. Rb1 Bg7 20. Nc7 Qxd1 21. Rfxd1 Rad8 22. Nxe6 fxe6 23. Bf1 $1 $16) 19. Qd2 Bxd5 20. Qxd5 Qxd5 21. Bxd5 Rfd8 22. Bg2 Bxb2 {with only a slight plus for White.}) 11. b3 {Diagram [#]} a5 ({A more dynamic alternative is} 11... b5 $5 12. cxb5 a6 13. Bb2 (13. bxa6 $6 Bxa6 {with excellent play for the pawn.}) 13... axb5 14. Nxb5 Nf3+ 15. Bxf3 Bxb2 16. Rb1 Bg7 (16... Rxa2 $2 17. Qd2 Qf6 18. Nbc3 $17) 17. a4 Ba6 {followed by Qb8/d7 with active counterplay. Also good is Botvinnik's line}) (11... a6 12. Bb2 b5 13. cxb5 axb5 14. Qc2 b4 15. Ne4 Ba6 $11) ({Lastly, there is the more positional} 11... h5 12. h3 Re8 13. Rb1 c5 {with decent play after .....Qa5, .... Bd7, .... ....a7-a6 and .... b7-b5.}) 12. Bb2 Nd7 13. a3 {Diagram [#]} Nc5 ({Euwe questions this loss of time asnd recommends either} 13... Nf6) ({or} 13... Nb6) ({Better in any case is the more forward looking} 13... Re8 {planning ...Qe7, when if} 14. Qd2 { Black can now play} Nc5 $1) 14. b4 {Diagram [#]} Nd7 (14... axb4 15. axb4 Rxa1 16. Bxa1 Na6 {puts the knight off-side, but Black.s position is not especially advantageous after} 17. Qb3 ({Botvinnik's} 17. Ne4 Nxb4 18. g4 {doesn't look dangerous for Black after} Bxa1 19. Qxa1 Ng7 20. Nf6+ Kh8 {e.g.} 21. g5 Nd3 22. Ng3 Ne5) 17... Nd4 18. Nxd4 Bxd4 19. c5 dxc5 20. bxc5 Qe7 {and White's superiority is minimal at best.}) 15. Qb3 Nd4 ({Possible too is} 15... axb4 16. axb4 Rxa1 17. Rxa1 Re8 {followed likely by ....Qe7, responding to whatever White decides to undertake.}) 16. Nxd4 Bxd4 17. Rad1 {Diagram [#] Avoiding any simplification along the a-file and centralising the rook stronly.} Bg7 18. Rfe1 axb4 19. axb4 Nf6 {Black has to try to develop the c8-bishop, but the relocation of the knight relinquishes its influence over c5, as Pachman points out.} 20. h3 h5 $2 {Black's best source of play here is 20...Bd7 followed ... Re8 and ...Qc8 playing off whatever White decides to do with his kingside pawns.} 21. c5 {Diagram [#]} Bf5 ({The bishop is needed for defence on d7, Black might instead try l.} 21... Re8 22. Nb5 Bd7 23. Qc4 Rxe1+ 24. Rxe1 Bxb5 25. Qxb5 Nd7 26. Bxg7 Kxg7 27. cxd6 cxd6 28. Qxb7 Ra2 29. Qc6 Qf6 30. Rf1 Ne5 31. Qc3 Rb2 $1) ({ll} 21... Re8 22. Nb5 Bd7 23. c6 bxc6 24. dxc6 {solid enough with the rook on e8.} Be6 25. Qf3 {threatening 26 ... Nxc7} Rc8 $14 {when White has to show what his advantage really amounts to.}) 22. Nb5 {Diagram [#]} Bd7 $2 (22... Re8 { trading off a pair of rooks, has to be the betfer choice here.} 23. Rxe8+ Nxe8 24. Nd4 Qc8 25. Kh2 ({or} 25. Nxf5 Qxf5 {with a modest edge for White.}) 25... Bd7 26. Re1 Ba4 27. Qc4 h4 $1 28. c6 hxg3+ 29. fxg3 b5 $1 30. Qd3 Nf6 $14) ({ Botvinnik's suggestion} 22... g5 {is inferior because of} 23. Qf3 {where White's pressure on f6, overloads Black's queen and the c7-pawn goes lost. After the text move Botvinnnik starts to get a grip on the position.}) 23. c6 bxc6 24. dxc6 {Diagram [#]} Bc8 ({Better is} 24... Bf5 25. Nd4 Bc8 26. b5 Rb8 $16 {followed possibly by .... h5-h4 or ...Nh7-g5 [in conjunction with ... Re8] with some play left for Black. Futile, on the other hand, is}) (24... Be6 25. Rxe6 fxe6 26. Nd4 Qe7 27. Nxe6 Qf7 28. Bxf6 Bxf6 29. Bd5 Kh8 30. Nf4 { [Botvinnik]} Qh7 31. Be4 Rg8 32. Qd3 $18) 25. Nxd6 {Diagram [#]} Be6 ({No help is} 25... cxd6 {in view of} 26. c7 Qxc7 27. Bxa8 Bxh3 28. Bf3 Rb8) 26. Rxe6 fxe6 27. Nf5 $6 {Diagram [#]} ({A momentary slip. Much stronger is} 27. Ne4 Nd5 28. Nc5 Bxb2 29. Nxe6 Qf6 30. Nxf8 Kxf8 31. Qxd5 {with two extra pawns. The text gives Sammy one last chance.}) 27... Qe8 $2 ({The win, if any, is most unclear after} 27... Qxd1+ 28. Qxd1 exf5 29. b5 Ne4 $1 30. Bxg7 Kxg7 31. Bxe4 fxe4 32. Qd4+ Kh7 33. Qxe4 Rac8 (33... Rae8 34. Qd4 Rf7 {White has 18 minutes left, Black 7 minutes.})) 28. Nxg7 Kxg7 29. Rd7+ {Now it is all over.} Rf7 30. Be5 $1 {Attacking the c-pawn as well as the knight by means of Qf3. The rest is easy.} Kg8 (30... Rxd7 31. cxd7) 31. Rxc7 Rxc7 32. Bxc7 Ra1+ 33. Kh2 Ra7 34. Be5 Rf7 35. c7 Nd7 36. Qc2 Rf8 37. c8=Q {Reshevsky was a master of cramped but essentially sound positions. His indifferent performance here speaks to his poor form at the outset of the tournament - and, Botvinnik played superbly.} 1-0 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.12"] [Round "4"] [White "Euwe, Max"] [Black "Fine, Reuben"] [Result "0-1"] [ECO "D43"] [Annotator "John Sherwood"] [PlyCount "88"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [Source "ChessBase"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. d4 e6 2. c4 Nf6 3. Nf3 d5 4. Bg5 h6 {A favourite of Frank Marshall, who apparentely was the first to play it, against Rubenstein at Warsaw 1908.} 5. Bxf6 ({Rubinstein chose} 5. Bh4 {happily going into the complications after} dxc4 6. e3 b5 7. a4 c6 8. Be2 Bb4+ 9. Nc3 Nbd7 10. O-O Bxc3 11. bxc3 Bb7 12. Qb1 a6 13. Bxc4 Qc8 14. Bd3 O-O 15. Rc1 c5 16. axb5 c4 {1/2-1/2 Rubinstein, A-Marshall,F/Warsaw 1908/HCL (48)}) 5... Qxf6 6. Qb3 ({Instead of the usual} 6. Nc3 {Euwe prefers to post the Queen's Knight at d2 so that it can recapture on e4 after an eventual ...dxc4. The knight also supports an early e2-e4 advance without having to worry about a pin by Black's dark-squared bishop.}) 6... c6 7. Nbd2 Nd7 {Diagram [#]} 8. e4 ({Euwe wants more than he would have after the less energetic} 8. e3 Be7 9. Bd3 O-O 10. O-O b6 11. Rac1 Bb7 12. cxd5 exd5 13. e4 Qd6 $11) 8... dxe4 9. Nxe4 Qf4 ({The queen is well posted here, and is quite safe after the trade of White's dark-squared bishop. Uncomfortable for Black is} 9... Qg6 10. Ng3 Be7 11. Bd3 Qg4 12. O-O O-O 13. Rfe1 $16) 10. Bd3 { Diagram [#]} e5 ({Euwe thought} 10... Nf6 {was "likely better", but Fine wants to open the position for his bishops, relying on the alertness (and exceptional form) to see him through the complications. The next year, Stahlberg - Capablanca (Buenos Aires Olympiad 1939) would see} 11. Nxf6+ (11. Nc3 Be7 12. O-O O-O 13. Rfe1 Rd8 {followed by ...b7-b6, ...Bb7, and Rac8 with a firm position.}) 11... Qxf6 12. O-O Bd6 13. Rfe1 O-O {Diagram [#]} 14. c5 Bc7 15. Be4 Rd8 16. Rad1 Rb8 17. Ne5 Bd7 18. Bc2 Be8 19. Qd3 g6 {drawn on move 30.} ) 11. O-O ({Black answers} 11. dxe5 Nxe5 12. Nxe5 Qxe5 13. O-O Be7 14. f4 {with } Qd4+ 15. Kh1 f5 16. Rae1 $1 O-O (16... fxe4 $2 17. Rxe4 Qf6 18. Rfe1 $18) 17. Ng3 Bh4 18. Rd1 Qc5 19. Rfe1 $18 {(hoping for 20.Re5)} Bf6 20. Nh5 Bd4 $11 { with a solid game.}) 11... Be7 (11... f5 $6 12. Ng3 e4 {is too risky with Black's king still in the centre} 13. Rfe1 Kd8 (13... Nf6 $2 14. Ne5 {followed by c4-c5 and an overwhelming position}) 14. Nxe4 fxe4 15. Rxe4 Qf7 16. Rc1 Kc7 17. Qc3 {followed by an advance of the queenside pawns, with a ready-made attack.}) 12. Rfe1 exd4 ({Not} 12... O-O $2 13. Ng3 Bd8 ({or} 13... Bd6 14. h3 {(threatening 15.Nh5)} Qf6 15. Ne4 Qe7 16. Nxd6 Qxd6 17. dxe5 {winning a pawn}) 14. dxe5 Nc5 15. Qc3 {when Black's two bishops are not enough compensation for the pawn minus.}) 13. Nxd4 ({On} 13. Ng3 {Black is well placed after} Nc5 14. Qc2 (14. Qa3 $5 Ne6 15. c5 O-O {planning ...g7-g6 and ...Qf6 would appear to give White too little for the pawn.}) 14... g6 15. Ne2 Qf6 16. Nexd4 O-O 17. Rad1 Bg4 {and ....Rad8=}) ({Euwe thought} 13. Bc2 O-O 14. Qd3 {"worth considering" but} g6 15. Nxd4 Nc5 16. Qc3 Re8 17. Rad1 Nxe4 18. Rxe4 Qf6 19. c5 Qg5 {is satisfactory for Black.}) 13... O-O 14. Bc2 Nf6 ({Black is solid but unneccessarily passive after} 14... Nc5 15. Qc3 Nxe4 16. Rxe4 Qc7) 15. Rad1 { Diagram [#]} g6 ({Only not the careless} 15... Rd8 $2 {because of} 16. Nxc6 bxc6 17. Nxf6+ gxf6 (17... Bxf6 18. Rxd8+ Bxd8 19. Re8#) 18. Rxd8+ Bxd8 19. Re8+ Kg7 20. Rxd8 $18) 16. Nxf6+ $2 ({Releasing the tension too early, as Euwe points out. More promising is} 16. Qc3 {though Kasparov's suggestion} Bg4 17. f3 Bc8 $1 18. Nf2 Rd8 19. g3 Qc7 $11 {looks decent enough for Black. Euwe gives}) (16. Qc3 Nxe4 17. Rxe4 Qc7 18. Qe3 Bg4 19. f4 Bf6 20. f5 {Diagram [#]} g5 21. h4 {"with a strong attack".}) ({But not} 16. Qc3 Rd8 $2 17. Nxc6 bxc6 18. Nxf6+ Qxf6 19. Qxf6 Bxf6 20. Rxd8+ Bxd8 21. Re8+ Kh7 22. Rxd8 {with an extra pawn. (Based on Euwe's analysis in the tournament book.)}) 16... Bxf6 17. Re4 Qc7 18. Qe3 Kg7 {Diagram [#]} 19. h4 $2 {White tries to press the attack before Black can finish developing and deploy his bishops, bu, as Fine points out, the move only weakens his pawns, a fact that will prove decisive later. He suggests instead b2-b3 and h2-h3.} h5 {Already fixing the weakness at h4.} 20. Rf4 (20. Rf4 -- {Threatening} 21. Rxf6 Kxf6 22. Qc3 Ke7 23. Re1+ Be6 24. Bxg6 {but in view of his opponent's reply, he might do better to play positionally with 20.c5.}) 20... Re8 $1 {"This defence took Euwe by surprise" (Fine).} 21. Qxe8 (21. Qd2 Bg4 22. f3 Be5 23. Re4 Bd7 {(threatening 24...c5.)} 24. c5 Rad8 {is depressing for White.}) ({Or} 21. Re4 Rxe4 22. Qxe4 Bg4 23. f3 Bd7 {and the h4-pawn will go lost after ....Re8.}) 21... Qxf4 22. Nf3 $2 ({ Euwe's best hope at this point seems to be} 22. g3 Qg4 23. Qe4 Qxe4 24. Bxe4 { e.g.} Bg4 25. f3 Rd8 26. Rd2 Re8 27. fxg4 Bxd4+ 28. Kg2 hxg4 29. b4 {going into an ending with unlike bishops.}) ({A fscinating tactical attempt to go for broke was suggested by the Russian master, Chekover. If Fine was getting short of time, Euwe might, uncharacteristically, have tried} 22. Bxg6 {Then Black must find his way through some tricky variations.} fxg6 (22... Bxh4 23. Nf5+ Bxf5 24. Qxf7+ Kh6 25. Bxf5 Bxf2+ 26. Kh1 Qh4+ 27. Bh3 Bd4 28. Qxb7 Rd8 29. Qxc6+ Qf6 30. Qe6 Qxe6 31. Bxe6 Bf6 32. Rxd8 Bxd8 $18) (22... Bxd4 23. Rxd4 Qf6 $1 24. Rd8 Kxg6 {with a probable draw.}) (22... Kxg6 23. Qg8+ Kh6 24. Nf3 Qg4 25. Qxf7 Qg7 26. Qe8 Bg4 27. Qe3+ Kh7 28. Rd6 Rf8 29. Ng5+ Kg8 $19) 23. Qxc8 $1 Rxc8 24. Ne6+ Kf7 25. Nxf4 {with good winning chances for White. Only the last of these possible variations is favourable for Black.}) 22... Rb8 $1 {With the rook now protected, Fine can develop his queen's bishop; he now threatens 23...Be6 winning the queen..} 23. Qe4 ({Avoiding the exchange of queens with} 23. Qe2 {runs into trouble with} Bg4 {winning th h-pawn.}) 23... Qxe4 24. Bxe4 {Diagram [#]} Bg4 ({Not} 24... Bxb2 $2 25. Rb1 ({Fines} 25. Rd8 { fails to} Ba3 ({also good is Kasparov's} 25... f5 26. Bd3 Bf6 27. Re8 Kf7 { followed by ...Be6-+}) 26. Ng5 Be7 27. Re8 Bd6 28. Rd8 Bf4 29. g3 Bg4 30. Rd3 Bxg5 31. hxg5 Re8 $19) 25... Bf6 26. Bxc6 b6 27. Bd5 {and White survives.}) 25. Rd2 Re8 26. Bd3 (26. Re2 $2 Bf5 27. Nd2 Bxb2 $19) 26... Rd8 {Forcing the b-pawn to b3, making a later queenside invasion that much easier.} 27. b3 Bxf3 28. gxf3 Bxh4 29. Kg2 Bg5 30. Rd1 Bf4 31. Kf1 h4 {The h-pawn ties down the white king while Black's monarch penetrates the beckoning queenside..} 32. Kg2 f5 33. Kh3 Kf6 34. Kg2 (34. Kxh4 $2 Rh8#) 34... Rd4 35. Kh3 g5 {Diagram [#]} 36. Bc2 ({It is painful to exchange the rooks, but} 36. Kg2 {leads to} Bd6 { followed by the transfder of the king to f4, as pointed out by Ryumin.}) 36... Rxd1 37. Bxd1 Bd6 38. Bc2 Ke5 {The rest is straightforward.} 39. Kg2 Bc5 40. Bd3 a5 41. Bc2 f4 42. Bg6 Kd4 43. Bf5 Kc3 44. Bc8 Kb2 {"In the first half of the AVRO tournament, I plsyed as one possessed. (Fine)} 0-1 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.13"] [Round "5"] [White "Fine, Reuben"] [Black "Flohr, Salo"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "C17"] [Annotator "John Sherwood"] [PlyCount "55"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [Source "ChessBase"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. e4 e6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 Bb4 4. e5 c5 5. Bd2 ({The} 5. dxc5 $5 {of Round 1 is no longer a surprise.}) 5... Ne7 6. Nf3 {Diagram [#]} Nf5 $6 ({The way to try for equality is} 6... cxd4 7. Nb5 Bxd2+ 8. Qxd2 O-O 9. Bd3 Nbc6 {and a timely . ..f7-f6.}) 7. dxc5 ({One has to think that} 7. a3 Bxc3 (7... Ba5 $2 8. dxc5 -- 9. b4) 8. Bxc3 {is preferable, inasmuch as the strength of the dark-squared bishop will make itself felt in the later middlegame.}) 7... Bxc5 ({Not} 7... Nd7 $6 8. Bd3 Nxc5 (8... Nh4 9. Nxh4 Qxh4 10. g3 Qd8 11. Qg4) 9. Bxf5 exf5 10. O-O {(threatening 11.Bg5+).} Bxc3 11. Bxc3 O-O) 8. Bd3 Nh4 ({Spending another tempo, but after} 8... Nc6 9. O-O O-O 10. Bxf5 exf5 11. Bg5 {gives White a definite plus.}) 9. O-O Nc6 10. Re1 h6 $2 ({To be able to castle, but this move does nothing for Black's position and loses more time. Better is} 10... Nxf3+ 11. Qxf3 O-O 12. Qh3 g6 13. Bh6 Re8 {followed by ...Bb7 or ...a6, providing a rufuge for the bishop on h7.} 14. --) (10... O-O {loses to the time-honoured} 11. Bxh7+ Kxh7 12. Ng5+ Kg6 13. Qg4 f5 (13... Nf5 14. Nxe6+) 14. Qxh4) 11. Na4 Bf8 ({If} 11... Be7 12. Nxh4 Bxh4 13. Qg4 {and Black cannot castle (Fine).}) 12. Rc1 {Diagram [#] Preparing to open the centre, taking advantage of his superior development.} Bd7 (12... Bd7 {The losing move. It gets the bishop out and threatens} 13. -- Nxf3+ 14. Qxf3 Nxe5) ({but correct was} 12... Nxf3+ 13. Qxf3 Bd7 {e.g.} 14. c4 Nb4 15. Nc3 Nxd3 16. Qxd3 dxc4 17. Qxc4 Bc6 18. Bf4 Qb6 {intending} 19. -- Qb4 {with a tenable game.}) 13. Nxh4 Qxh4 14. c4 {Diagram [#]} dxc4 ({Now White's attack picks up steam. But after } 14... Nb4 15. Be2 ({stronger than Fine's} 15. Bf1) 15... d4 (15... Qd4 16. a3 Nc6 17. Nc3 dxc4 18. Nb5 Qb6 19. Bxc4 a6 20. Be3 {and} -- 21. Nd6+ {which just has to be winning.}) 16. Qb3 {Black loses the b-pawn.}) 15. Rxc4 Qd8 16. Qh5 { Diagram [#]} (16. Qh5 -- {Threatening} 17. Rf4 Qe7 18. Rxf7 $1) 16... Ne7 ({ Black is certain to be lost after any normal continuation, so he should castle out of danger and try to generate a counter-action on the other wing with} 16... Qc7 {e.g.} 17. Rf4 O-O-O 18. Rxf7 Kb8 19. Qg4 Qc8 {planning ...Be8, ... g7-g5, ...Be7, and ...Rdg8 etc. getting active play for the pawn.}) 17. Rd4 ( 17. Nc5 $1 Rb8 ({or} 17... Nd5 18. Nxb7 Qb6 19. Nd6+ Bxd6 20. exd6 Qxd6 21. Rd4 Nf6 22. Qf3 Qc6 23. Qg3 Rg8 24. Rc1 $18) 18. Rd4 Qb6 19. Rc1 Rd8 20. Rb4 {etc.} ) 17... g6 18. Qf3 {Diagram [#]} Qc7 ({Flohr can hold out longer with} 18... Rc8 19. Bb5 Bxb5 20. Rxd8+ Rxd8 21. Nc3 Bc6 $14) 19. Nc3 ({Kasparov points out } 19. Nc5 $1 Bc6 (19... Qxc5 20. Rxd7 $18) 20. Qf6 Rg8 21. Bc4 {when there is no counter to the threat} -- 22. Nxe6 $1) 19... Nf5 20. Nb5 Qb6 ({Fine analyses } 20... Qc6 21. Qxc6 bxc6 22. Nc7+ Kd8 23. Bxf5 Kxc7 24. Ba5+ Kc8 25. Be4 $18 { e.g.} Bc5 26. Rxd7 Kxd7 27. Rc1 {coming out at least a pawn ahead.}) 21. Rxd7 $1 Kxd7 22. g4 {Diagram [#]} (22. Ba5 $1 Qc6 23. Qe2 {and the crushing} -- 24. Be4) 22... Nh4 ({Or} 22... Qc6 23. Re4 $1 Bc5 24. b4 ({not} 24. gxf5 $2 gxf5 25. Rf4 Qxf3 26. Rxf3 a6 27. Nc3 Bd4 28. Bxa6 Bxe5 29. Bb5+ Ke7 {with open files for the rooks and good counter-play for Black.}) 24... Bb6 25. gxf5 gxf5 26. Nd6 {Diagram [#] 1.} Qd5 (26... fxe4 27. Qxf7+ Kd8 28. Qf6+ Kc7 29. Qg7+ Qd7 30. Nb5+ Kd8 31. Qxh8+ Qe8 32. Qxe8+ Kxe8 33. Bxe4 $18) 27. Rf4 Qxf3 28. Rxf3 Rhg8+ 29. Kf1 f6 30. Bf4 fxe5 31. Bxe5 Bc7 32. Bb5+ Ke7 33. Nxf5+ exf5 34. Bxc7 $18) ({The plausible} 22... a6 {fails to} 23. gxf5 axb5 24. fxe6+ fxe6 25. Qf7+ Be7 26. Be3 Qa5 27. Rd1 {when Black has to abandon the bishop.}) 23. Qxf7+ Be7 24. Bb4 Rae8 {A last jest, threatening to win the queen with ....Rhf8.} 25. Bxe7 Rxe7 26. Qf6 a6 {Diagram [#]} 27. Rd1 $1 {Even stronger than taking the rook.} axb5 28. Be4+ ({It's all over after} 28. Be4+ Kc7 29. Qxh8 Rd7 30. Rc1+) 1-0 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.14"] [Round "6"] [White "Alekhine, Alexander"] [Black "Fine, Reuben"] [Result "0-1"] [ECO "C83"] [Annotator "John Sherwood"] [PlyCount "136"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [Source "ChessBase"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5. O-O Nxe4 {A good choice v Alekhine, offering a more open position and plenty of counterplay.} 6. d4 b5 7. Bb3 d5 8. dxe5 Be6 9. c3 Be7 10. Nd4 $6 ({Sacrificing a pawn for a speculative attack, an Alekhine trafemark. Here, however, he is up against a superb defensive and tactical player; the most he is able to achieve is a rather fortunate recapture of the pawn, with no advantage. Botvinnik - Euwe (Leningrad 1943) saw} 10. Nbd2 O-O 11. Qe2 Nc5 12. Nd4) 10... Nxe5 11. f3 Nf6 12. Qe2 Nc4 { Diagram [#]} 13. Bc2 ({Regainng the pawn with} 13. Nxe6 fxe6 14. Qxe6 {offers little after the simple} Qd7) 13... Qd7 14. b3 Nb6 15. Re1 O-O 16. Bg5 ({ Alekhine distains} 16. Nxe6 fxe6 17. Qxe6+ Qxe6 18. Rxe6 Rac8 $11) 16... Rfe8 17. Nd2 Nh5 18. Bxe7 ({Not} 18. Be3 $2 c5 19. Nxe6 Qxe6 $17) 18... Rxe7 19. Qe5 g6 {Diagram [#]} 20. g4 {A pawn down Alekhine has to do something.} Ng7 ({More to the point is} 20... f6 21. Qe3 Ng7 {contemplating ....Rae8 and f7-f5.}) 21. b4 {As the tournament book points out this move forestalls ...c7-c5 and maintains the knight on d4, which may eventually be manouvred to c5. Meanwhile, White's greater space attempts to compensate for the pawn minus.} Rae8 22. Qf4 {Diagram [#]} Na4 $6 ({Not the sort of move one normally associates with Reuben Fine. Both sharper and positionally sounder is} 22... f5 23. h3 Bf7 24. Kf2 fxg4 25. hxg4 Ne6 26. Nxe6 Rxe6 27. Nb3 Rxe1 28. Rxe1 Rxe1 29. Kxe1 Qe7+ 30. Kf1 Nc4 31. Kf2 Qh4+ 32. Qg3 Qf6 {keeping the extra pawn with a nice position.}) 23. Re3 ({Retaining the bishop for a potential attack. Another player might prefer to adapt to the fact of the pawn minus by choosing} 23. Bxa4 bxa4 24. Nf1 f5 25. h3 fxg4 26. hxg4 Bf7 27. Kf2 {when White should be safe enough in view of Black's impotent pawn structure.}) 23... Qd6 $1 (23... f5 $1 24. Bxa4 bxa4 25. h3 a5 {with better pawn play for Black than in the game.}) 24. Qxd6 cxd6 {Diagram [#] Now with his attacking chances behind him, Alekhine plays to win the d5-pawn, restoring material equality.} 25. Rae1 Rc7 (25... Nb6 {followed b y ...Kf8 was worth considering.} ) 26. Nb1 Bd7 27. Rxe8+ Bxe8 {Diagram [#]} 28. Bb3 $2 ({"Now there begins the struggle for the d5-pawn" (Euwe). This willigness to give up the c3-pawn dfor the pawn at d5 makes no sense at all. Correct is} 28. Bxa4 bxa4 29. Kf2 {and Rd1, with only a modest disadvantage. Alekines evidently thinks there's more for him in the position, even after the potential loss of the c3-pawn.}) 28... Nb6 $2 ({The forward d-pawn is of little dignificance, as he has another right behind it. Indicated is the straightforward} 28... Nxc3 29. Nxc3 (29. Rc1 Ne6 $1 $11) 29... Rxc3 30. Rd1 (30. Bxd5 Rd3 31. Re4 Kf8 32. Bb3 Bd7 $11) 30... Ne6 31. Kf2 Nxd4 32. Rxd4 Bc6 {with a very favourable ending. The text move dissipates Black's advantage, since noow his extra pawn is rendered useless in the blocked position.}) 29. Kf2 Kf8 30. Rd1 Ne6 (30... h5 $5) 31. Ne2 Bc6 32. Na3 Ke7 33. Nc2 Nc4 34. Ne3 h6 35. h4 Nb6 36. Bxd5 Bxd5 37. Nxd5+ Nxd5 38. Rxd5 {Diagram [#]The position is level; Alekhine keeps pressing for a win that isn't there.} Rc4 39. Ke3 Kd7 40. f4 Kc6 {"Here the game was adjourned. Alekhine has the slightest possible advantage in space, but fights on and on trying to win long after the position has become fully equalised. He was a little upset by having 9by the time the game was resumed) let slip wins against Reshevsky and Keres in turn" (CHESS)} 41. Rd1 Kd7 42. Rf1 ({"The shifting of the battle scene took twenty minutes of thought by the world champion. Apparently, he does not care to draw by repetion} 42. Rd5 Kc6 43. Rd1 {(Chess Review)}) 42... Ke7 {Diagram [#]} 43. Kd3 ({Another way is} 43. a4 bxa4 44. Ra1 g5 45. hxg5 hxg5 46. fxg5 Rxg4 47. Rxa4 Nc7 48. Ra5 d5 49. Nf4 Kd6 50. Kf3 Rxg5 51. c4 $11) 43... g5 44. hxg5 hxg5 45. f5 {Diagram [#]} Nf8 (45... Nc7 {heading for d5, is a good alternative.}) 46. f6+ Kd7 47. a4 Ng6 ({Or} 47... Rxg4 48. axb5 axb5 49. Nd4 Ng6 50. Nxb5 Ne5+ 51. Ke3) 48. axb5 Ne5+ 49. Kd2 axb5 50. Nd4 Nxg4 51. Nxb5 Ne5 52. Nd4 g4 53. Kc2 Rc8 54. Nf5 ({It's a stand-off after} 54. Ra1 g3 (54... Rg8 $2 55. Ra7+ Kc8 56. Ra8+) 55. Rg1 Rg8 56. Rg2 Nc4 57. Kd3) 54... Rg8 55. Ng3 Rh8 {"alekhine is now on the defensive. Fine has played the endgame with perfection throughout. Presumably Alekhine considered his united passed pawns stronger than black's - which are really disunited - but the outstanding feature of the position is the advanced passed g-pawn" (CHESS)} 56. Rf2 ({Or perhaps} 56. Rd1 {eyeing Ne4 and meeting} Rh3 { with} 57. Ne4 g3 58. Rg1 Rh2+ 59. Kd1 g2 60. Ke2 $11) 56... Nf3 57. Re2 Rh3 58. Nf5 ({The draw is there to be had with} 58. Re7+ Kc6 59. Nf5 Rh5 60. Nd4+ Nxd4+ (60... Kd5 61. Rxf7 Rh2+ 62. Kb3 g3 63. Rg7 $11) 61. cxd4 Rh7 62. Kd3 g3 63. Ke3 {etc.}) 58... Ne5 59. b5 Rf3 60. Nd4 Rxf6 61. b6 $2 ({The final error. Alekhine can still maje a fight of it with} 61. Rg2 Rf1 62. Kd2 f5 63. Ke2 Rf4 64. Rg3 {when it is harder for Black to make progress. But such dogged defensive chess was never to Alekhine's taste.}) 61... Kc8 62. Nb5 g3 {Diagram [#]} 63. Kb3 ({After} 63. Nxd6+ Rxd6 64. Rxe5 {Fine wins with} Rxb6 65. Kd3 Rg6 66. Re1 Rd6+ 67. Kc2 (67. Ke3 Re6+ 68. Kd2 Rxe1 69. Kxe1 f5) 67... f5 68. Rf1 Rf6 69. Kd3 f4 70. Ke2 g2 71. Ra1 f3+ 72. Kf2 Kc7 {and the further advance of the black king.}) 63... Rg6 64. Rg2 f5 65. Ra2 Kb7 66. Rd2 f4 67. Nxd6+ Rxd6 68. Rxd6 g2 {"Alekhine's style is changing, he is careless in the opening and in the balance of the game is over-confident of his resourcefulness, which, truth to tell, has often saved him. This strategy permits him to dominate the older masters, but the younger ones cannot be bluffed that way." (Tartakover)} 0-1 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.15"] [Round "7"] [White "Botvinnik, Mikhail"] [Black "Alekhine, Alexander"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "D41"] [Annotator "Botvinnik, Mikhail"] [PlyCount "101"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [SourceDate "2008.02.16"] 1. Nf3 d5 2. d4 Nf6 3. c4 e6 4. Nc3 c5 {This variation arose three times in the Alekhine-Euwe Return Match. Black aims at simplification, in order to facilitate his defence} 5. cxd5 {I chose another road, more modest, and often followed by Soviet masters} ({Alekhine was well acquainted with Euwe's continuation} 5. Bg5 cxd4 6. Nxd4 e5 7. Nb3 $1) 5... Nxd5 6. e3 {This is a very reliable continuation, but it appears to lead to equality. In one game of his return match with Euwe, Alekhine played Pg3 but that also should lead to an equal game} ({main variation} 6. e4 Nxc3 7. bxc3 cxd4 8. cxd4 Bb4+ 9. Bd2 Bxd2+ 10. Qxd2 {has no dangers for Black}) 6... Nc6 7. Bc4 ({I considered} 7. a3 Be7 8. Bd3 O-O 9. O-O cxd4 10. exd4 Bf6 11. Be3 Nxc3 12. bxc3 e5 {brings no gain to White}) 7... cxd4 {Alekhine let slip the opportunity to go into a mainline and moves into a difficult situation} (7... -- 8. Bxd5 $140 exd5 9. dxc5 {[%csl Gd5]}) (7... Nb6 {This move leads to a well known position in the Queen's Gambit Accepted, rightly regarded as leaving an equal game}) 8. exd4 Be7 9. O-O O-O 10. Re1 {[%csl Gc8] White's position is superior. Thought the d-pawn is isolated, it cramps Black considerably. But above all White has a wealth of possibilities with his pieces, the direct result of 7. ... Pxd5, whereas Black still have to solve the problem of developing his Queen's Bishop} b6 {Probably this is a decisive mistake. Now White reduces the game to a prosaic pressure on Black's Queenside, weakened by ... Pb6, a task which is facilitated by White's perceptible superiority in development. First and foremost the long diagonal must be closed} (10... Nxc3 $142 {securing the long diagonal for his Queen's Bishop} 11. bxc3 b6 {[%cal Gb7f3] True, even so the White d-pawn is strengthened and White has obtained fair chances on the Kingside, but Black should have played thus (Botvinnik-Szabo, Groningen 1946)}) 11. Nxd5 exd5 12. Bb5 Bd7 {leads to inevitable exchanges, after which White's superiority grows very clear} (12... Na5 $142 13. Ne5) 13. Qa4 Nb8 $8 {White's superiority in development increases still more} (13... Rc8 14. Bd2 $1 {[%cal Gc1c8]} (14. Bxc6 $2 Bxc6 15. Qxa7 Bb4 {[%cal Gc8a8]}) 14... a6 15. Bxc6 Bxc6 16. Qxa6 {Black gets not compensation whatever for the pawn.}) 14. Bf4 Bxb5 15. Qxb5 a6 16. Qa4 {[%csl Gc6] Keeping the Black Knight from c6. Black is forced to offer the exchange of Bishops} Bd6 (16... -- 17. Bxb8 Rxb8 18. Qxa6) 17. Bxd6 Qxd6 18. Rac1 Ra7 {[%cal Ga7c7]} 19. Qc2 $16 {[%csl Gc7] With this move White hinders ... Rc7 and also firmly captures both the open files. Black's Knight is badly posted, and it is difficult to bring it inot play. These factors permit the conclusion that Black has a lost position and White has only to find a good plan for exploiting his superiority} Re7 (19... f6 20. Qf5 $16 {[%csl Ge6] an endgame favourable to White is forced}) 20. Rxe7 Qxe7 21. Qc7 Qxc7 {Of course the exchange is forced; the White Queen occupies too strong a position at c7} 22. Rxc7 f6 $1 {[%cal Gf8f7] Well played. The White Rook will have to retire from the seventh rank and that relieves Black's situation a little.} 23. Kf1 (23. Rb7 $143 Rc8 $1 24. Kf1 b5 {[%cal Gc8c1] And the c-file is dominated by black}) 23... Rf7 24. Rc8+ Rf8 25. Rc3 $1 {An intriguing situation. Black can't move a single piece. Black's best chance is to bring the King to the centre. To do this he must advance the g- and h-pawns from his second rank} g5 (25... Nd7 26. Rc7) (25... Re8 26. Rc7) 26. Ne1 h5 { It seems as though Black has escaped the direct threats. Now White exploits the weakening of the Black's Kingside} (26... h6 27. Nc2 Kf7 28. Ne3 Ke6 29. g4 $1 {[%csl Gf5][%cal Ye3f5]}) 27. h4 $1 (27. Nc2 Kf7 28. Rc7+ Ke6 29. Rh7 Nd7) 27... Nd7 (27... gxh4 28. Nf3) (27... Kf7 28. hxg5 (28. Nf3 g4 29. Ne1 Ke6 30. Nd3 Kf5 31. g3 Ke4 32. Nf4 $16 {Botvinnik's recommendation}) 28... fxg5 29. Nf3 g4 30. Ne5+ {Alekhine feared this}) 28. Rc7 Rf7 29. Nf3 g4 30. Ne1 f5 31. Nd3 { [%cal Gd3f4]} f4 {Otherwise Nf4, but now Black will be finally in zugzwang. There is not even any point in White winning a pawn by play Nb4} 32. f3 gxf3 33. gxf3 a5 34. a4 {[%csl Gb5]} Kf8 35. Rc6 Ke7 36. Kf2 Rf5 37. b3 Kd8 38. Ke2 Nb8 {a trap} 39. Rg6 (39. Rxb6 Kc7 {[%cal Gb8c6] follwed by ... Nc6}) 39... Kc7 40. Ne5 Na6 {White's game is won just as he wishes} 41. Rg7+ Kc8 42. Nc6 {At last the "harvest" begins. White comes out with at least two extra pawns} Rf6 43. Ne7+ Kb8 44. Nxd5 Rd6 45. Rg5 Nb4 46. Nxb4 axb4 47. Rxh5 Rc6 (47... Rxd4 48. Rf5 Kb7 49. Rf6 Kc7 50. h5 $18) 48. Rb5 Kc7 49. Rxb4 Rh6 50. Rb5 (50. Kd3 Re6 $1) 50... Rxh4 51. Kd3 {One of those games which have no brilliant moves whatever; every move seems very simple, yet it is impossible to cut out any one of them, for they are all closely interlocked. Of course the difficulty of creating such a game lies not in the complexity of calculation involved, but that, when calculation, the position arising must be soundly appraised} 1-0 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.15"] [Round "7"] [White "Fine, Reuben"] [Black "Keres, Paul"] [Result "0-1"] [ECO "C86"] [Annotator "John Sherwood"] [PlyCount "114"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [Source "Caissas Edition"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5. O-O Be7 6. Qe2 {The Worrall Attack, one of Fine's 1.e4 preparations for the tournament.} b5 7. Bb3 d6 8. a4 {Fine marks this move "!" in his edition of MCO, written before AVRO.} Bg4 ({But not } 8... b4 9. Qc4) ({Alekhine - Aztalos (Kecksmeet 1927) went} 8... Rb8 9. axb5 axb5 10. c3 O-O 11. d4 exd4 12. cxd4 Bg4 13. Rd1 d5 14. e5 Ne4 15. Nc3 Nxc3 16. bxc3 {with the usual white advantage.}) ({The text move threatens} 8... Bg4 9. -- Nd4) 9. c3 O-O 10. axb5 ({Fine later preferred} 10. h3 Bh5 11. d3 $11) 10... axb5 11. Rxa8 Qxa8 12. Qxb5 {Diagram [#] Fine tells us he "overestimated" the value of this pawn. And Keres: "When I went for this variation I was convinced that Black's advantage in development would, nevertheless, ensure him sufficient counter-chances. After some thought, too, I succeeded in finding a continuation that deprived the method of play chosen by White of all it's poison."} Na7 $2 ({Spielman - Stoltz (Match, 1932) saw} 12... Na5 $2 { (marked "!" in the Moscow 1935 tournament book)} 13. Bc2 Nxe4 $2 ({better is} 13... c5 14. Qe2 Be6) 14. b4 $2 (14. Nxe5 $1 dxe5 15. Qxe5 Bf3 16. Qxe7 Bxg2 17. Kxg2 Nxd2+ 18. f3 Nxf1 19. Qe4 Qxe4 20. fxe4 Nxh2 21. Kxh2 {with the somewhat better ending.}) 14... Bxf3 15. Qxa5 (15. gxf3 Ng5) 15... Ng5 16. Qxa8 Bxa8 17. d3 Ne6) ({Of course not} 12... Nxe4 13. Bd5 {when a knight is lost.}) 13. Qe2 ({Keres cites the game Rogman - Rellstab (1935)} 13. Qa5 Qxe4 14. Qxa7 Bxf3 15. gxf3 Qg6+ 16. Kh1 Qxb1 17. Qxc7 Qd3 18. Kg1 {Diagram [#]} {Now} Nh5 ({ Keres suggestion} 18... Bd8 {seems to offer little after} 19. Qc6 d5 20. Qd6 Re8 21. Re1 {e.g.} Be7 22. Qc6 Qxf3 23. Rxe5 Qf4 24. Re3 Ng4 {the best chance} 25. Qxe8+ Bf8 26. Rf3 $1 {the only defence to the mate threat.} Qxf3 27. Qe1 { followed by Bd1 =}) 19. Qc4 Qxf3 20. Bd1 Qf4 21. Qxf4 Nxf4 {with an eventual draw.}) (13. Qe2 Nxe4 14. d4 exd4 15. Nxd4 Nc5 16. Qc4 Nxb3 17. Qxb3 c5 $15) 13... Qxe4 14. Qxe4 Nxe4 {Even with the exchange of queens and the material equality, Black's better development gives him a slight initiative.} 15. d4 ( 15. Bd1 Nc5 {is awkward for White.}) 15... Bxf3 16. gxf3 Ng5 {Diagram [#]} 17. Kg2 (17. Bxg5 Bxg5 18. dxe5 Rb8 (18... dxe5 19. Re1 Bf4 20. Rd1 Nc6 21. Na3 $11 ) 19. Bc4 Rxb2 20. exd6 cxd6 21. Na3 {followed by either 22.Rb1 or 22.Bd5, with Nc4 to follow (the vulnerable f2-pawn is irrevelant.}) 17... Rb8 18. Bc4 exd4 19. cxd4 Ne6 {Diagram [#]} 20. d5 ({Inferior is} 20. Bxe6 fxe6 21. Nc3 d5 $1 {fixing the d5-pawn on a square where it is quite weak.} 22. Bf4 Rxb2 23. Bxc7 Nc6 24. Be5 Nxe5 25. dxe5 g5 $1 {with a very nice ending for Black. Fine instead uses the d-pawn to cramp his opponent's pawns and he has the two bishops, for these reasons he thought he had the advantage here even after giving Keres the c5r- and d4 squares.}) 20... Nc5 21. Nc3 {Diagram [#]} Nc8 ({ Keres prefers} 21... Rb4 22. Re1 Bf8 23. Bf1 f5 {intending ...Bf6, but it is doubtful what he would really have after} 24. Na2 Ra4 25. Nc3 Ra1 26. Bd2 Rxe1 27. Bxe1 {especially in view of White's very useful light-squared bishop.}) 22. Re1 Kf8 23. Re2 $2 ({Fine says "A questionable move, but White is already lost. " (Exactly where he goes wrong he doesn't tell us)} 23. Bf1 Rb4 {so as to block the rook with ....Nb6.} 24. Na2 Rb3 25. Nc3 Nb6 26. Nb5 {e.g.} Nd3 27. Bxd3 Rxd3 28. Nxc7 Nxd5 29. Nxd5 Rxd5 30. b4 $11) 23... f5 $1 ({Keres misses} 23... Rb4 24. Ba2 ({or} 24. Bb5 {to keep the knight out of d3} Na7 25. Bc6 Nxc6 26. dxc6 Bd8 $1 {when White's weak pawns at b2 and c6 cannot be held}) 24... Nd3 {winning the b=pawn. (Based on analysis by Keres.)}) 24. Nb5 ({White should also be able to hold with} 24. Rc2 Nb6 25. Ne2 Nxc4 26. Rxc4 {followed by Nd4.}) 24... Nb6 25. b3 Nxd5 {"Recognising that his positional advantage has evaporated. Black chances his arm in lively complications." (Beheim)} 26. Nd4 {Diagram [#]} Nb4 {Diagram [#]} 27. Bd2 $2 ({Keres and Fine both suggest} 27. Nxf5 Bf6 28. Bf4 {then} Ncd3 29. Bg3 Ne5 (29... d5 30. Bxd3 Nxd3 31. Bxc7 Rxb3 32. f4 g6 33. Ne3 d4 34. Nd5 {followed by Re4 and White draws.}) 30. Re4 g6 31. Ne3 Nxc4 32. bxc4 {when queening a pawn will prove quite problematic. There is a fine analysis of the ending from this point on in "Secrets of Chess Transformations" by Marovic.}) 27... d5 $1 28. Bxb4 ({This is more robust than } 28. Rxe7 dxc4 29. Bxb4 Rxb4 30. bxc4 Kxe7 31. Nc6+ Ke6 32. Nxb4 g6 {(White's king will come out by way of f4) followed by ...Nd7 and ...Nb6 etc., winning easily.}) 28... Rxb4 {Diagram [#]} 29. Nc6 (29. Rxe7 Kxe7 30. Nc6+ Kd6 31. Nxb4 {would seem to lose to} dxc4 32. bxc4 Nb3 33. Nd3 g6 34. Kg3 Nd2 35. c5+ Kd5 36. Kf4 Kd4 37. Ne1 Kxc5 38. Ke5 Kc4 39. Kf6 Kd5 $1 {Black has to hold the g-pawn if he is to impede White's h-pawn.} 40. Kg7 Ke6 41. f4 c5 42. Nc2 c4 43. Kxh7 Kf7 $1 {etc. Black's knight will go after White's kingside pawns, while the white king and knight are out of the game.}) 29... dxc4 $1 ({Fine overlooked this at his 27th turn, perhaps expecting} 29... Rb6 $2 30. Bxd5 Bf6 31. Ne5 g6 (31... Nxb3 $2 32. Nd7#) 32. Rc2 {when Black would have nothing better than} Bxe5 33. Rxc5 $11) 30. Nxb4 ({One might prefer the less risky} 30. bxc4 {e.g.} Nd3 31. Rxe7 Rxc4 32. Rxc7 g6 33. Rc8+ Kg7 34. Ne7 Ne1+ 35. Kf1 Rxc8 36. Nxc8 Nxf3 37. Kg2 {and f2-f4=.}) 30... cxb3 31. Nd5 ({Not} 31. Rb2 $2 Kf7 ({not} 31... Bf6 32. Rb1 b2 $2 33. Nd5 Be5 34. f4 $11) 32. Kf1 Ke6 33. Ke2 Bf6 34. Rb1 b2 {then ...Na4 and c7-c5 -+. (Analysis by Fine)}) 31... Nd3 $1 32. Rd2 ({The bishop cannot be taken either way} 32. Rxe7 b2) ({or} 32. Nxe7 Nf4+) 32... b2 33. Rd1 {Diagram [#]} c5 ({"Black in time trouble, does not find the best continuation." (Keres) More to the point is} 33... Nc1 34. Nc3 Bb4 ({Fine gives} 34... Bf6) 35. Nb1 Ke7 $19 {and the advance of the c-pawn.}) 34. Rb1 {Fine now had 2 minutes left to Keres' 26 minutes.} c4 35. Kf1 (35. Nxe7 $2 c3 {and c3-c2.}) 35... Bc5 36. Ke2 Bxf2 37. Ne3 (37. Kd2 $2 Kf7 38. Kc3 Ke6 39. Nb4 (39. Nc7+ Kd6 40. Na6 Be3 41. Kxc4 Ne5+ 42. Kc3 Bc1 $19) 39... Nxb4 40. Kxb4 Kd5 41. Rxb2 Bc5+ 42. Ka4 c3 43. Rc2 Kc4 {etc.}) 37... c3 {Diagram [#] } 38. Nc2 ({If} 38. Kxd3 Bxe3 39. Kxc3 Bc1 40. Kd4 (40. Rxb2 Bxb2+ 41. Kxb2 Kf7 42. Kc3 Kf6 43. Kd4 Kg5 44. Ke3 Kh4 45. Kf2 Kh3 46. Kg1 g5 47. Kh1 g4 48. fxg4 fxg4 49. Kg1 h6 $1 {and wins.}) 40... Kf7 {The kingside pawn ending is won for Black, especially with the help of the bishop along the diagonal.}) 38... Ne1 39. Na3 ({If} 39. Nb4 {then} Bh4 40. Na2 Bf6 41. Kxe1 c2 42. Rxb2 Bxb2 43. Kd2 Be5 44. h3 Kf7 45. Kxc2 Kf6 46. Nc1 Kg5 $19) ({Or} 39. Nxe1 Bxe1 40. Kd3 (40. Kxe1 c2 $19) 40... Bd2 41. Kc2 Bc1 $1 $19) 39... Bc5 $2 ({Correct is} 39... Bh4 $1 40. f4 (40. Rxe1 c2 $19) 40... Ke7 {and the decisive entry of the king.}) 40. Kxe1 ({The critical moment of the game, and indeed of the tournament. Bronstein analyses} 40. Rxe1 Bxa3 41. Kd3 Bb4 42. Kc2 g6 ({Fine and Keres both give} 42... Kf7 43. Re5 {makes no sense} (43. f4 {is correct} Kf6 (43... Bd6 44. Rf1 $1 Kf6 45. h3 $1 Bb4 46. Rg1 g6 47. Rg3 h6 48. h4 $11)) 43... Bd6 44. Rxf5+ Kg6 45. Rb5 Bxh2 46. Kxc3 Be5+ 47. Kd3 Kf5 48. Ke3 g5 $19) 43. Re6 Bc5 44. Rc6 Bd4 45. Rc7 $11) 40... Bxa3 41. Kd1 Bd6 {Diagram [#]} 42. Kc2 ({Fine has to let the pawn go, since after} 42. h3 {Keres simply plays} Bf4 43. Kc2 Bc1 $19) 42... Bxh2 43. Rh1 ({If} 43. Kxc3 Be5+ 44. Kc2 Kf7 {followed by ...... Bd2 and the pawn advance. But the win is just as inevitable after the text move.}) 43... Be5 44. Rxh7 Kf7 45. Rh1 g5 46. Re1 Kf6 47. Rg1 Kg6 48. Re1 Bf6 49. Rg1 g4 $1 {Diagram [#] A pretty breakthrough, the advance of the passed f-pawn decides.} 50. fxg4 f4 51. g5 Bd4 52. Rd1 Be3 53. Kxc3 Bc1 54. Rd6+ (54. Kc2 Kxg5 {amounts to the same thing.}) 54... Kxg5 55. Rb6 f3 56. Kd3 Kf4 57. Rb8 Kg3 ({The conclusion, as given by Keres, could be} 57... Kg3 58. Rg8+ Kf2 59. Kc2 Ke2 60. Re8+ Kf1 61. Rf8 f2 62. Rf7 Ke2 63. Re7+ Kf3 64. Rf7+ Bf4 {and the queening of the f-pawn.}) 0-1 [Event "AVRO"] [Site "Holland"] [Date "1938.11.22"] [Round "11"] [White "Botvinnik, Mikhail"] [Black "Capablanca, Jose Raul"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "E49"] [Annotator "Botvinnik, Mikhail"] [PlyCount "81"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "14"] [EventCountry "NED"] [SourceDate "2008.02.16"] 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Bb4 4. e3 {The Nimzo-Indian Defence is not to be refuted in this way, but recent practise has shown that it is doubtful whether there is any refutation. With 4. Pe3 White aims only at consolidating his centre, hoping that a strong centre will be useful to him in the middlegame} d5 {So "theory" recommends", but this game shows that the move has certain disadvantages. Now White can take this continuation, for the c-pawns can always be exchanged} (4... O-O 5. a3 Bxc3+ 6. bxc3 {[%csl Gc3,Gc4] May be disadvantgeous to White because of the c-pawns weakness;}) 5. a3 Bxc3+ (5... Be7 6. Nf3 {One of the positions arising out of the Queen's Gambit Declined but with an extra move Pa3 for White}) 6. bxc3 c5 {The most natural. White's basic plan is later to play Pf3 and Pe4 and break through in the centre. This will not be easy to carry through if Black in his turn organizes pressure on White's d-pawn, which his sixth move is calculated to do} 7. cxd5 exd5 {[%csl Ge4] A debated question is how to recapture the d-pawn. Black decides to take with a pawn, in order to make Pe4 almost impossible for White} 8. Bd3 O-O 9. Ne2 {So far the game recalls that between Lilienthal-Ragozin, Moscow 1935, but in that game White had already played Pf3. With the system White has adopted in this game he does not need to play this necessary move in the opening; a very important circumstance The piece most unpleasnt to Black is the Bishop at d3, so he plays to exchange it} b6 10. O-O Ba6 {Perhaps the Bishop should have been kept and retired to c2, but the Black Bishop at a6 is then quite strong. But if Bishops are to be exchanged, it is best to do so as in the game, for it is difficult for Black's Knight at a6 to reach the strong squared c4 We may note by the way, that after this game all this variation was checked in practise again and again, with changing fortunes for both sides} 11. Bxa6 Nxa6 12. Bb2 {Passively played} ({Of course the usual move is} 12. Qd3 $142 $1 { [%csl Ga6] forcing} Qc8) 12... Qd7 $1 {[%cal Gd7a4]} 13. a4 {It is difficult for White to correct his inexact play of the last move. It is necessary to prepare Qd3} (13. Qd3 {would be met by} Qa4 $1) 13... Rfe8 {A suprising mistake for Capablanca to make} ({It was not at all difficult to find the continuation} 13... cxd4 $142 14. cxd4 Rfc8 {[%cal Gc8c1] White has difficulties along the c-file. However, White would probably have sufficient resources available for his defence}) 14. Qd3 c4 {[%cal Ga6b8,Gb8c6,Gc6a5, Ga5b3] This is a really serious positional blunder. Black evidently assumed that White would be unable to advance the d-pawn later, and Black's superiority on the Queenside would tell. Capablanca had in mind ... Nb8-c6-a5-b3 after which it is difficult for White to defend the a-pawn However, Black's superiority on the Queenside happens in this case to be of no great consequence, and the breakthrough Pe4 proves inevitable.} ({Black should have contented himself with the modest defence} 14... Qb7 $142) 15. Qc2 Nb8 16. Rae1 {Psychologically understandable: White aims to show that he has no intention of defend the a-pawn at all.} (16. Ba3 Nc6 17. Bb4 $11 {[%csl Ga5]}) (16. Ng3 $142 {[%csl Yh5][%cal Gf2f3,Ge3e4] preventing ... Nh5} Nh5 $141) 16... Nc6 {Black mistakenly assumes that the struggle will be decided by his winning the a-pawn, otherwise he was bound to play ... Na5 preventing Ng3 (the Knight exchange is disadvantageous for White} (16... Nh5 $142 {suggested by Romanovsky } 17. h3 f5 18. Bc1 Nc6 19. f3 Na5 20. g4 fxg4 21. hxg4 {Black's position on the Kingside gives cause for anxiety}) 17. Ng3 Na5 {An interesting moment: Black can't prevent Pe4} (17... Ne4 18. Nh1 $1 {[%cal Gf2f3,Ge3e4] White temporarily transfers his Knight to h1}) 18. f3 Nb3 19. e4 Qxa4 20. e5 Nd7 { [%cal Gb3c5]} (20... Nc5 21. Re2 $1 {[%csl Rc5,Rf6] Leads to a loss of a piece} ) 21. Qf2 {[%cal Gg3f5,Gf5d6,Yf3f4] Forced because of the threat ... Nbc5; but the Queen transfer to the kingside comes into White's plan. Now Black must defend himself against Nf5-d6, and against the advance of the f-pawn. Black's pieces cannot come quickly to their King's aid; and at the moment it is still far to the exploitation of his extra pawn. With his next manoeuvre Capablanca gains the opening up of the e-file, in the hope that simplification will be his advantage} g6 22. f4 f5 23. exf6 {The only way to continue the attack} Nxf6 24. f5 Rxe1 25. Rxe1 Re8 (25... Rf8 26. Qf4 $1 Qa2 (26... Qd7 27. Re6 Na5 ( 27... Ne4 28. Qe5 Nxg3 29. Re7) 28. Ba3 Rf7 29. Qg5 $1) 27. fxg6 Qxb2 (27... hxg6 28. Qg5) 28. g7 Kxg7 (28... Rf7 29. Qb8+ Kxg7 30. Nf5+ Kg6 31. Qg3+ Kh5 32. Qh4+ Kg6 33. Qh6+ Kxf5 34. Re5+ Kg4 35. Qg5#) 29. Nf5+ Kh8 30. Qh6 Rf7 31. Qxf6+ {[%cal Ge8h8]} Rxf6 32. Re8+) 26. Re6 $1 (26. fxg6 hxg6 27. Rxe8+ Nxe8) 26... Rxe6 (26... Kf7 27. Rxf6+ Kxf6 28. fxg6+ Kxg6 (28... Ke7 29. Qf7+ Kd8 30. g7) 29. Qf5+ Kg7 30. Nh5+ Kh6 31. h4 Rg8 32. g4 Qc6 33. Ba3 $1 {[%cal Ga3f8]}) 27. fxe6 {[%cal Ge6e7] Now White gets a threatening pawn on e6} Kg7 28. Qf4 $1 {[%cal Gg3f5,Yf4g5]} Qe8 {[%cal Ge8g6] preventing Nf5+ and Qg5} 29. Qe5 Qe7 ( 29... Na5 30. Bc1 {[%csl Rh6][%cal Gc1h6,Ye5c7]}) 30. Ba3 $3 Qxa3 (30... Qe8 31. Qc7+ Kg8 32. Be7 Ng4 33. Qd7 $18) 31. Nh5+ $1 gxh5 (31... Kh6 32. Nxf6 Qc1+ 33. Kf2 Qd2+ 34. Kg3 Qxc3+ 35. Kh4 Qxd4+ 36. Ng4+ $1) 32. Qg5+ Kf8 33. Qxf6+ Kg8 (33... Ke8 34. Qf7+ Kd8 35. Qd7#) 34. e7 $1 {[%cal Gf6d4] the d-pawn is defended} (34. Qf7+ $143 Kh8 35. e7 Qc1+ 36. Kf2 Qd2+ 37. Kg3 Qxc3+ 38. Kh4 Qxd4+ 39. Kxh5 Qe5+ {perpetual check}) 34... Qc1+ 35. Kf2 Qc2+ 36. Kg3 Qd3+ 37. Kh4 Qe4+ 38. Kxh5 Qe2+ 39. Kh4 Qe4+ {even now care is needed} 40. g4 (40. Kh3 h5 $3 {a draw is inevitable}) 40... Qe1+ 41. Kh5 1-0